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  • Cause and Consequence
    9
    AB
    1800-1900, 1900-present

    Funding and support for the development of this lesson plan is as a result of a grant from Alberta Education to support implementation of the K-12 Social Studies curriculum. Financial and in-kind support was also provided by the Edmonton Regional Learning Consortium (www.erlc.ca).

    The intent of the lesson is to help students use the historical thinking concept of cause and consequence in relation to events in Canadian history that involved individual rights and freedoms. Students first work through examples to gain an understanding of the concept of cause and consequence, and then complete a cause and consequences diagram. After presenting their findings to the class, students analyze these events in relation to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms to determine to what degree the rights of individuals were upheld. In the final activity, the teacher leads a discussion about issues that emerged from the students’ research in order to make connections to subsequent and contemporary events.

  • Cause and Consequence
    5, 11, 12
    BC
    1800-1900, 1900-present

    Using the photo and text of the Wong Kung Lai and Chu Man Ming family as a starting point, students will study the various conditions that lead to change in history. Their final task is a counterfactual, such as "what would have happened to the history of Chinese-Canadians, if there had not been World War II?"

  • Historical Perspectives, Ethical Dimensions of History
    10, 11, 12
    NB
    1800-1900, 1900-present

    On July 20, 1885, the Chinese Immigration Act received royal assent and became law. Among other restrictions it imposed a Head Tax of $50 on any Chinese immigrants. It was the first of many increasingly severe laws to discriminate against Canada's Chinese population. Eventually, on July 1, 1923, a new Chinese Immigration Act came into effect. It almost completely banned Chinese immigration to Canada and during the next 24 years, only 44 Chinese entered Canada. Chinese Canadians long referred to July 1 as “Humiliation Day."

    In these lessons students examine the imposition of the Chinese Head Tax and the Exclusion Act of 1923. After researching the background and considering the historical perspectives of the various groups involved, they write a position paper on the responsibility of the current Canadian government to acknowledge the injustice towards the Chinese in Canada.

     

  • Historical Significance, Primary Source Evidence
    11
    BC
    1900-present

    During a heat wave that hit Vancouver in the summer of 1924, the body of Janet K Smith, a 22 year-old Scottish nursemaid, was discovered in the home of a prominent family in Shaughnessy Heights. Two inquests into the death left the cause of death in dispute. Was it accidental? Was it suicide? Or was there foul play? Public interest in the "Case of the Scottish Nightingale" was heightened when a young Chinese man was charged with the murder of Janet Smith and the story remained a major news story (often front page) for more than a year. No convictions were made and the death of Janet Smith remains a mystery to this day.

    Your team of historical detectives has been given the "Cold Case" file on the death of Janet Smith. Your job is to reexamine the fragmentary documentary evidence in the file as it relates to some of the more sensational elements involved in this case. While sorting through the evidence you have been given (thinking about the type of source, reliability, etc.), consider what these documents reveal about the case itself and about Vancouver society during this time period. Although this case was a major news story at the time (and continues to get some attention to this day) can it be labeled as a 'historically significant' event? After reflecting on the evidence consider the different hypotheses put forth to explain Janet Smith's death. Which hypothesis has the strongest evidence to support it (based on the documents you have been given)? Once your group has selected the hypothesis that offers the best explanation, 'reconstruct the crime scene' by preparing a plausible account of the events that led up to the death of the woman who became known as the "Scottish Nightingale".

  • Historical Significance, Continuity and Change, Primary Source Evidence
    12
    AB
    1900-present

    Funding and support for the development of this lesson plan is as a result of a grant from Alberta Education to support implementation of the K-12 Social Studies curriculum. Financial and in-kind support was also provided by the Edmonton Regional Learning Consortium (www.erlc.ca).

    In this lesson, students are asked to draw similarities between the economic policies of American Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Barack Obama and Canadian Prime Ministers R. B. Bennett and Stephen Harper. Students will come to learn how historical events and policies of the past are interrelated and relevant to contemporary political and economic issues and events.

What is a Benchmark?

<p>John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising &amp; Marketing History,<br />Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections</p>

A surveyor cut a "benchmark" into a stone or a wall when measuring the altitude and/or level of a tract of land. A bracket called a "bench" was secured in the cut to mount the surveying equipment, and all subsequent measurements were made in reference to the position and height of that mark.

The term "benchmark" was first used around 1842 to refer to a standard of quality by which achievement may be measured.

The foundation documents available through the Benchmarks site attempt to help teachers establish standards for assessing student learning of the modes of thought that constitute historical thinking.

John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History,
Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections